ⓘ වෛද්යවේදී සහ ශල්යවේදී උපාධිය
වෛද්යවේදී සහ ශල්යවේදී උපාධිය, are the two first professional degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in වෛද්ය විද්යාව and surgery by universities in various countries that follow the tradition of the එක්සත් රාජධානිය. The naming suggests that they are two separate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and awarded together.
1. ඉතිහාසය හා උපත
The degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are currently awarded in various forms in institutions in ඕස්ට්රේලියාව, බංග්ලාදේශය, බාර්බඩෝස්, චීනය, ඊජිප්තුව, ෆීජි, ඝානා, ගයනා,
In many countries, the degrees are awarded after an undergraduate course lasting five or six years. In some cases, a graduate in another discipline may subsequently enter a special graduate-entry medical course, reduced in duration to account for relevant material covered or learning skills acquired during the first degree. In some cases the old first year courses for six year degrees in the basic sciences of physics, chemistry and biology have been abolished, and that standard has to be reached by means of school examinations before entry. However, in most countries a newly-graduated Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery must spend a specified period in internship before they can obtain full qualification as a medical practitioner.
The specific names and abbreviations given to these degrees depend on the particular institution, awarding body or country, and vary widely; this is mostly for reasons of tradition rather than to indicate any particular difference between the relative levels of the degrees, and they are considered equivalent.
If the awarding body titles the degrees in Latin, the degrees are commonly named Medicinae Baccalaureus, Chirugiae Baccalaureus, Medicinae Baccalaureus et Chirurgiae Baccalaureus, or Baccalaureus in Medicina et in Chirurgia, abbreviated as MB ChB, MB BCh or otherwise. If titled in English, they are named Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery, usually abbreviated as MB BS, and rarely as BM BS, even though most MB BS-awarding institutions do not use Latin to name their degrees.
Below are described the specific names used, arranged by country.
2.1. නම්කිරීම ඕස්ට්රේලියාව
MB BS are conferred by most ඕස්ට්රේලියානු medical schools. The graduate-entry Flinders medical school confers BM BS. The University of Newcastle confers BMed ; although no degree in surgery is formally awarded by Newcastle, this degree is equivalent to the MB BS, and students may go on to a career in surgery the same as any other graduates in medicine and surgery.
2.2. නම්කිරීම ගුයානා
The University of Guyana awards MB BS. Other "offshore" United-States-linked schools in the country award the North American MD, but these are not recognized in Guyana itself.
2.3. නම්කිරීම හොං කොං
The awarding of qualifications in Hong Kong has continued to follow the British tradition despite the handover of the territorys sovereignty from the hands of the United Kingdom to the Peoples Republic of China on 30 June 1997. The dual degree is awarded as:
- MB BS at University of Hong Kong; and
- MB ChB at Chinese University of Hong Kong.
2.4. නම්කිරීම ඉන්දියාව
Medical colleges in India award MB BS. Licenciate qualifications in medicine and surgery, LMS or LMP, were also formerly awarded after a shorter course, originally at a "medical school" rather than a "medical college".
In addition, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Bombay formerly awarded a licentiate at LMS level, a membership MCPS at MB BS level and a fellowship FCPS at MD level and the State Medical Faculty of West Bengal previously of Bengal similarly gave licentiates and memberships on an external basis.
2.5. නම්කිරීම අයර්ලන්තය
The University of Limerick awards BM BS. The other medical schools in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland - namely Queens University Belfast, University of Dublin Trinity College, some constituent institutions of the National University of Ireland, and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - award the degrees of MB BCh BAO. The letters BAO stand for Baccalaureus in Arte Obstetricia Bachelor of Obstetrics, a degree unique to Ireland which the Irish universities began to award in the 19th century after legislation insisted on a final examination in obstetrics. This third degree, however, is not registerable with the Irish Medical Council nor the British General Medical Council GMC.
LRCPI LRCSI, or simply LRCP&SI, denotes a holder of the historical non-university qualifying licenciates awarded jointly by the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland to students of the RCSIs medical school under the Irish Conjoint Scheme. Unlike the corresponding licentiates awarded by the Royal Colleges in Scotland and England which were external qualifications, these qualifications are still registerable with the Irish Medical Council, but not with the British GMC. Students at RCSI still receive these licenciates but now also receive the degrees MB BCh BAO, due to RCSIs status as a recognised college of the National University of Ireland. The RCSI students also received a Licence in Midwifery LM from each college, in the same way that the Irish universities granted BAO degrees, so their qualifications were sometimes expressed as L & LM, RCPI, L & LM, RCSI or more misleadingly as LLM, RCP&SI.
LAH formerly denoted a licentiate of the now-defunct Apothecaries Hall, Dublin, and is no longer awarded.
2.6. නම්කිරීම කෙන්යාව
The national universities with medical faculties in Kenya, namely the University of Nairobi, Kenyatta University and Moi University, award MB ChB.
2.7. නම්කිරීම මලයාසියාව
The University of Malaya and Universiti Teknologi MARA both award MB BS. Other public universities such as Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Malaysia Sabah and Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, however, follow the North American model and style their degrees as Doctor of Medicine. However, it is questionable whether such degrees are academically equivalent to the US award, since the latter universities usually require entrants to have a four year bachelor degree before entry into a professional medical degree.
2.8. නම්කිරීම මෙක්සිකෝව
Most medical schools last for 5 or 6 years, which include 1 or 2 years of internship in public and/or private hospitals. After those years of school, every medical student is required to complete one year working in rural places. This year is refered to as "social service." During this year the student may practice වෛද්ය විද්යාව although the title can not be awarded until this year has been completed. After the social service year the student recieves the title of "Physician and Surgeon" or Doctor.
2.9. නම්කිරීම නවසීලන්තය
The two New Zealand medical schools, Auckland and Otago, style their degrees as MB ChB.
2.10. නම්කිරීම පාකිස්තානය
All medical schools in Pakistan award the MB BS degree after completion of an undergraduate medical education.
2.11. නම්කිරීම ස්කොට්ලන්තය
All medical schools in Scotland award MB ChB.
The University of St Andrewss Bute Medical School awarded MB ChB until the early 1970s, but since the incorporation of its clinical medical school into the University of Dundee, St Andrews now only awards a pre-clinical BSc or BSc Hons, and students go elsewhere to finish their clinical training, usually to the University of Manchester where they are awarded an MB ChB after a further three years study.
The Scottish Triple Conjoint Diploma of LRCPE, LRCSE, LRCPSG is an old non-university qualifying examination in medicine and surgery awarded jointly by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, previously through a Conjoint Board and from 1994 through the United Examining Board. These qualifications are still registrable with the GMC, but permission to award them was withdrawn by the Privy Council of the UK in 1999.
2.12. නම්කිරීම දකුණු අප්රිකාව
The University of Pretoria, University of Cape Town, University of the Free State, University of Stellenbosch, University of KwaZulu-Natal and MEDUNSA all award MB ChB, whereas the University of the Witwatersrand styles its degree as MB BCh.
2.13. නම්කිරීම සිංගප්පූරුව
The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore confers MB BS. The American Duke University also has a medical programme based in Singapore, but it follows the North-American model of styling its degree Doctor of Medicine.
2.14. නම්කිරීම ශ්රී ලංකා
The University of Colombo, ශ්රී ජයවර්ධනපුර විශ්වවිද්යාලය, පේරාදෙණිය විශ්වවිද්යාලය, කැලණිය විශ්වවිද්යාලය, රුහුණ විශ්වවිද්යාලය, යාපනය විශ්වවිද්යාලය, ශ්රී ලංකා රජරට විශ්වවිද්යාලය, ජෙනරාල් සර් ජෝන් කොතලාවල ආරක්ෂක විශ්වවිද්යාලය සහ ශ්රී ලංකා නැගෙනහිර විශ්වවිද්යාලය යන විශ්වවිද්යාල මගින් MBBS උපාධිය පිරිනමයි.
2.15. නම්කිරීම බටහිර ඉන්දීය කොදෙවූ දූපත්
All constituent countries of the University of the West Indies UWI confer MB BS, due to the historical affiliation of UWI to the University of London.
Medical degrees differ from other undergraduate degrees in that they are professional qualifications which lead holders to enter a particular career upon receipt. This is not the case with most other undergraduate degrees, with the exception of qualifications in pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary medicine and qualifying law degrees, so whilst the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are undergraduate or graduate degrees depending on the institution, they are perhaps more accurately conceptualised as a so-called first professional degree.
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery are usually awarded as general/ordinary degrees, not as honours degrees, and as such the graduate is not classified as for honours degrees in other subjects. However, at many institutions for example the University of Manchester in England and the University of Dundee in Scotland it is possible for the degrees to be awarded with Honours i.e. MB ChB Hons) or with Commendation, if the board of examiners recognises exceptional performance throughout the degree course. Very few of these are awarded.
More often, it is possible to study one subject for an extra year for an intercalated honours degree. This is usually a Bachelor of Science BSc, Bachelor of Medical Science BMedSci, Bachelor of Medical Biology BMedBiol or similar: at Oxford and Cambridge in England and Dublin in Ireland Bachelor of Arts degrees are awarded. At a few universities most medical students obtain an ordinary degree in science as well: when the University of Edinburgh had a six year course, the third year was followed by award of an ordinary BScMedSci. In ඕස්ට්රේලියාව, The University of Melbourne in ඕස්ට්රේලියාව offers an Arts Degree BA to a medical student on the completion of two extra years of undergraduate study, and Monash University offers a Law degree LLB; if the optional Law degree is undertaken, on completion of their degree the student may choose to do a one-year internship at a hospital and become a doctor, or spend one year doing articles to practise thereafter as a lawyer. At the University of Nottingham in England all medical students on the five year course obtain a Bachelor of Medical Sciences BMedSci degree without an extra intercalated year. The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland along with certain National University of Ireland medical schools offers a BMedSci qualification on completion of a thesis based on 2-3 months of summer research; only students achieving honours in their preclinical courses are eligible to receive the degree. At Imperial College London certain medical students are able to extend their intercalated year to an extra three years, thus temporarily exiting the MBBS course to complete a PhD. Upon completion of the PhD, the student is required to sit the remaining 2 years of the medicine course in order to receive his/her MBBS degeee.
Medical school graduates are only entitled to use the courtesy title "Doctor" upon registration as a medical practitioner with the relevant regulatory body in their respective country.
Medical graduates are also eligible to sit various postgraduate examinations, including examinations for membership and fellowship of professional institutions such as Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons, postgraduate Masters degrees such as a Master of Surgery or Master of Obstetrics and a postgraduate doctorate in medicine eg Doctor of Medicine, if earned in the UK or Commonwealth nations, and board certification examinations.
- PHY-993 Use of the M. D. Title: The Wisconsin Medical Society: 1) defends the use of the M.D. title by physicians who graduated with an M.B.B.S. and are licensed to practice medicine in Wisconsin. HOD,0495